Statute of Limitations for Qui Tam Suits
The statute of limitations for a qui tam action is found in Title 31, Section 3731(b) of the United States Code.
“A civil action under section 3730 may not be brought—
(1) more than 6 years after the date on which the violation of section 3729 is committed, or
(2) more than 3 years after the date when facts material to the right of action are known or reasonably should have been known by the official of the United States charged with responsibility to act in the circumstances, but in no event more than 10 years after the date on which the violation is committed,
whichever occurs last.”
In determining which limitations period applies to an FCA action, courts examine the time at which either the relator or the government became aware or knew of the violation.
RELATION BACK OF GOVERNMENT’S COMPLAINT
If the government intervenes in the FCA action, the government can file its own complaint or amend the complaint of the relator to add details or claims. For statute of limitation purposes, any pleading filed or amended by the government for the purpose of adding new claims will relate back to the filing the date of the relator’s complaint to the extent that the new claims arise out of the same conduct alleged in the relator’s complaint.
Under Section 3731(b)(1), an FCA action must be brought within six years after the date the defendant committed the violation. This limitations period assumes that the qui tam whistleblower or the government has knowledge of the violation. The main issue then becomes determining the proper date that the violation was committed. Most courts hold that the date of submission of the claim is the trigger date for the six-year statute of limitations. However, some courts hold that the statute does not begin to run until the date the claim was actually paid. A few courts even make a distinction based on whether damages or penalties are sought.
THREE YEAR TOLLING PROVISION
In 1986, Congress modified the FCA to include a tolling provision for the statute of limitations, which provided that an FCA action may not be brought “more than 3 years after the date when facts material to the right of action are known or reasonably should have been known by the official of the United States charged with responsibility to act.” In 2019, the Supreme Court effectively extended whistleblowers’ time to file FCA claims in declined cases to three years after the “official of the United States” knew or should have known about the relevant facts, but in no event more than 10 years after the date on which the violation is committed.
For more information and case citations, please see “Federal False Claims Act and Qui Tam Litigation,” published by Law Journal Press (updated biannually).
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This website is designed to provide general information only. This information is not and should not be construed to be legal advice. The transmission of the information found on this website also does not result in the formation of a lawyer-client relationship.
You should be aware that qui tam claims are subject to a Statute of Limitations. The area of limitations periods is complex. There are also first to file rules, public disclosure bars, original source issues, and varying limitations in pursuing retaliation claims. If you wish to pursue your claims, you should promptly seek the opinion of an attorney regarding the merits of your qui tam claim and the applicable statute of limitations.